IP-address (Internet Protocol Address, IP address) is a unique numeric identifier of a specific device in a computer network built on the basis of the TCP / IP protocol. This is its main function. To work on the Internet requires its global uniqueness. For a private network, it is enough to exclude matches in the local space.
IP address format and what it looks like
A valid Internet IP address can be in one of two digital formats, depending on the type of protocol used. Depending on which of these types the IP address belongs to, it will be clear how many bits are in it.
IPv4 (Internet Protocol v. 4) is an address written in 32-bit format. It looks like four 8-bit numbers (minimum 0, maximum 255), which are separated from each other by dots. Example: 172.16.255.2.
IPv6 (Internet Protocol v. 6) is an address written in 128-bit format. It looks like 8 groups, each of which contains 4 hexadecimal digits, separated from each other by colons. In this case, it is permissible to omit leading zero groups, which go in a row, and replace them with a double colon, however, only one such simplification is possible in one address. Example: 2001: 0da8: 11a4: 08d6: 1f84: 8a3e: 07a1: 655d.
IP address structure
Let's take a look at what the numbers mean. In general, an IP address consists of two parts (ID numbers): a network and a specific node within it. Classes or masks are used to distinguish them in full notation.
To access the Internet, it is necessary that the IP belongs to another block or there is a server within the local network on which the internal address is substituted for the external one. For this purpose, proxies or NATs are used. To access the Internet, the address is issued by the provider or regional Internet registrar.
By default, a router can belong to several different networks. Each of its ports has a personal IP address. Accordingly, the same principle of operation applies to specific computers that can support a different number of network connections.
Types of IP addresses
Depending on the way of use
External. He is "white", public or global. Used when accessing the Internet. Such an IP address is unique and it is under it that the device is seen on the network. Since the number of such identifiers is limited, NAT technology is used. It allows you to translate network IP addresses from private to public. For this, routers of a certain type are used.
Many Internet services use external IP addresses to track new and returning users. This allows you to collect statistics and do analytics that are important for website promotion.
Interior. It is also the "gray", local or private IP address of the source. Not used while accessing the Internet. It works only within the local network (home or provided by the provider), and access to it can only be obtained by other members of it. The following private IP ranges are reserved for this purpose by default:
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255;
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255;
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255.
It should be understood that the external IP address is not always permanent. Conversely, IP is often re-formed from one connection to the next.
Depending on the definition options
Static. These are IP addresses that are unchanged (permanent). They are assigned to the device automatically at the moment of its connection to the computer network or are manually registered by the user. Static addresses are available for use for an unlimited time. They can serve as an identifier for only one network node. Also sometimes used is the concept of pseudo-static addresses that operate within the same private network.
Dynamic. These are the IP addresses that are issued to the device at a time. They are automatically assigned at the time of connection to the network and have a limited period of validity (from the beginning of the session to its end). Dynamic IP addresses are a kind of masking technique. Tracking a person accessing the Internet using such an address is technically difficult; in this case, professional tools are indispensable.
What gives a static IP address
A static IP address is useful due to the following features:
binding the user to a specific network;
tools for organizing a protective data transmission channel;
optimization of work with network servers;
solving problems related to information technology;
simplified work in peer-to-peer networks (for example, with torrents);
the use of online services that require the mandatory presence of a static IP address.
How to find the IP address
Why know your real IP address? You will need it in order to start working with some services that require you to manually specify it. How can I get IP information? There are at least two ways:
specialized online services. It is very simple to use them: just go to them, and in a few seconds the necessary information will appear in the dynamic window;
provider. You can find out yourIP-address by contacting the technical support of the Internet service provider (as an option, in the "Personal Account" of the user).
Remember that along with the IP address, other devices (and, accordingly, persons) will also have access to other information, namely: the names and data of the Internet service provider, the name and version of the installed operating system and browser, geographic referencing. Third party services see if you are using a proxy or data protection.