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A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a uniform resource locator, a common way to record an address on the Internet.

As a rule, the URL consists of the protocol, domain, port number (by default, it depends on the protocol), directory or page location, request parameters, and may also contain a login and password for accessing the server.

URL structure:
<protocol>: // <name>: <password> @ <domain>: <port> /

Since the Internet was originally designed for the needs of the US military, the URL has one major drawback. Only ASCII characters can be used in the URL: English letters, numbers and some special characters. The rest of the characters must be encoded. Characters are encoded in hexadecimal form with a percent sign (%) at the beginning of each character.

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